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Initial commit from JAPL with some changes

master
Mattia Giambirtone 6 months ago
parent
commit
76812a2091
  1. 286
      LICENSE
  2. 196
      src/backend/types/arrayList.nim
  3. 84
      src/backend/types/baseObject.nim
  4. 48
      src/backend/types/dispatch.nim
  5. 49
      src/backend/types/floatObject.nim
  6. 207
      src/backend/types/hashMap.nim
  7. 40
      src/backend/types/intObject.nim
  8. 45
      src/backend/types/iterable.nim
  9. 15
      src/backend/types/stringObject.nim
  10. 20
      src/backend/vm.nim
  11. 61
      src/config.nim
  12. 1048
      src/frontend/compiler.nim
  13. 574
      src/frontend/lexer.nim
  14. 764
      src/frontend/meta/ast.nim
  15. 297
      src/frontend/meta/bytecode.nim
  16. 21
      src/frontend/meta/errors.nim
  17. 86
      src/frontend/meta/token.nim
  18. 402
      src/frontend/optimizer.nim
  19. 1096
      src/frontend/parser.nim
  20. 273
      src/frontend/serializer.nim
  21. 186
      src/main.nim
  22. 85
      src/memory/allocator.nim
  23. 195
      src/util/debugger.nim
  24. 40
      src/util/multibyte.nim

286
LICENSE

@ -1,85 +1,201 @@
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196
src/backend/types/arrayList.nim

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# Copyright 2022 Mattia Giambirtone & All Contributors
#
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
#
# http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.
# Implementation of a custom list data type for JAPL objects (used also internally by the VM)
import iterable
import ../../memory/allocator
import baseObject
import strformat
type
ArrayList*[T] = object of Iterable
## Implementation of a simple dynamic
## array with amortized O(1) append complexity
## and O(1) complexity when popping/deleting
## the last element
container: ptr UncheckedArray[T]
ArrayListIterator*[T] = object of Iterator
list: ArrayList[T]
current: int
proc newArrayList*[T]: ptr ArrayList[T] =
## Allocates a new, empty array list
result = allocateObj(ArrayList[T], ObjectType.List)
result.capacity = 0
result.container = nil
result.length = 0
proc append*[T](self: ptr ArrayList[T], elem: T) =
## Appends an object to the end of the list
## in amortized constant time (~O(1))
if self.capacity <= self.length:
self.capacity = growCapacity(self.capacity)
self.container = resizeArray(T, self.container, self.length, self.capacity)
self.container[self.length] = elem
self.length += 1
proc pop*[T](self: ptr ArrayList[T], idx: int = -1): T =
## Pops an item from the list. By default, the last
## element is popped, in which case the operation's
## time complexity is O(1). When an arbitrary element
## is popped, the complexity rises to O(k) where k
## is the number of elements that had to be shifted
## by 1 to avoid empty slots
var idx = idx
if self.length == 0:
raise newException(IndexDefect, "pop from empty ArrayList")
if idx == -1:
idx = self.length - 1
if idx notin 0..self.length - 1:
raise newException(IndexDefect, &"ArrayList index out of bounds: {idx} notin 0..{self.length - 1}")
result = self.container[idx]
if idx != self.length - 1:
for i in countup(idx, self.length - 1):
self.container[i] = self.container[i + 1]
self.capacity -= 1
self.length -= 1
proc `[]`*[T](self: ptr ArrayList[T], idx: int): T =
## Retrieves an item from the list, in constant
## time
if self.length == 0:
raise newException(IndexDefect, &"ArrayList index out of bounds: : {idx} notin 0..{self.length - 1}")
if idx notin 0..self.length - 1:
raise newException(IndexDefect, &"ArrayList index out of bounds: {idx} notin 0..{self.length - 1}")
result = self.container[idx]
proc `[]`*[T](self: ptr ArrayList[T], slice: Hslice[int, int]): ptr ArrayList[T] =
## Retrieves a subset of the list, in O(k) time where k is the size
## of the slice
if self.length == 0:
raise newException(IndexDefect, "ArrayList index out of bounds")
if slice.a notin 0..self.length - 1 or slice.b notin 0..self.length:
raise newException(IndexDefect, "ArrayList index out of bounds")
result = newArrayList[T]()
for i in countup(slice.a, slice.b - 1):
result.append(self.container[i])
proc `[]=`*[T](self: ptr ArrayList[T], idx: int, obj: T) =
## Assigns an object to the given index, in constant
## time
if self.length == 0:
raise newException(IndexDefect, "ArrayList is empty")
if idx notin 0..self.length - 1:
raise newException(IndexDefect, "ArrayList index out of bounds")
self.container[idx] = obj
proc delete*[T](self: ptr ArrayList[T], idx: int) =
## Deletes an object from the given index.
## This method shares the time complexity
## of self.pop()
if self.length == 0:
raise newException(IndexDefect, "delete from empty ArrayList")
if idx notin 0..self.length - 1:
raise newException(IndexDefect, &"ArrayList index out of bounds: {idx} notin 0..{self.length - 1}")
discard self.pop(idx)
proc contains*[T](self: ptr ArrayList[T], elem: T): bool =
## Returns true if the given object is present
## in the list, false otherwise. O(n) complexity
if self.length > 0:
for i in 0..self.length - 1:
if self[i] == elem:
return true
return false
proc high*[T](self: ptr ArrayList[T]): int =
## Returns the index of the last
## element in the list, in constant time
if self.length == 0:
raise newException(IndexDefect, "ArrayList is empty")
result = self.length - 1
proc len*[T](self: ptr ArrayList[T]): int =
## Returns the length of the list
## in constant time
result = self.length
iterator pairs*[T](self: ptr ArrayList[T]): tuple[key: int, val: T] =
## Implements pairwise iteration (similar to python's enumerate)
for i in countup(0, self.length - 1):
yield (key: i, val: self[i])
iterator items*[T](self: ptr ArrayList[T]): T =
## Implements iteration
for i in countup(0, self.length - 1):
yield self[i]
proc reversed*[T](self: ptr ArrayList[T], first: int = -1, last: int = 0): ptr ArrayList[T] =
## Returns a reversed version of the given list, from first to last.
## First defaults to -1 (the end of the list) and last defaults to 0 (the
## beginning of the list)
var first = first
if first == -1:
first = self.length - 1
result = newArrayList[T]()
for i in countdown(first, last):
result.append(self[i])
proc extend*[T](self: ptr ArrayList[T], other: seq[T]) =
## Iteratively calls self.append() with the elements
## from a nim sequence
for elem in other:
self.append(elem)
proc extend*[T](self: ptr ArrayList[T], other: ptr ArrayList[T]) =
## Iteratively calls self.append() with the elements
## from another ArrayList
for elem in other:
self.append(elem)
proc `$`*[T](self: ptr ArrayList[T]): string =
## Returns a string representation
## of self
result = "["
if self.length > 0:
for i in 0..self.length - 1:
result = result & $self.container[i]
if i < self.length - 1:
result = result & ", "
result = result & "]"
proc getIter*[T](self: ptr ArrayList[T]): Iterator =
## Returns the iterator object of the
## arraylist
result = allocate(ArrayListIterator, ) # TODO

84
src/backend/types/baseObject.nim

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# Copyright 2022 Mattia Giambirtone & All Contributors
#
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
#
# http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.
## The base JAPL object
import ../../memory/allocator
type
ObjectType* {.pure.} = enum
## All the possible object types
String, Exception, Function,
Class, Module, BaseObject,
Native, Integer, Float,
Bool, NotANumber, Infinity,
Nil, List, Dict, Set, Tuple
Obj* = object of RootObj
## The base object for all
## JAPL types. Every object
## in JAPL implicitly inherits
## from this base type and extends
## its functionality
kind*: ObjectType
hashValue*: uint64
## Object constructors and allocators
proc allocateObject*(size: int, kind: ObjectType): ptr Obj =
## Wrapper around reallocate() to create a new generic JAPL object
result = cast[ptr Obj](reallocate(nil, 0, size))
result.kind = kind
template allocateObj*(kind: untyped, objType: ObjectType): untyped =
## Wrapper around allocateObject to cast a generic object
## to a more specific type
cast[ptr kind](allocateObject(sizeof kind, objType))
proc newObj*: ptr Obj =
## Allocates a generic JAPL object
result = allocateObj(Obj, ObjectType.BaseObject)
result.hashValue = 0x123FFFF
## Default object methods implementations
# In JAPL code, this method will be called
# stringify()
proc `$`*(self: ptr Obj): string = "<object>"
proc stringify*(self: ptr Obj): string = $self
proc hash*(self: ptr Obj): int64 = 0x123FFAA # Constant hash value
# I could've used mul, sub and div, but "div" is a reserved
# keyword and using `div` looks ugly. So to keep everything
# consistent I just made all names long
proc multiply*(self, other: ptr Obj): ptr Obj = nil
proc sum*(self, other: ptr Obj): ptr Obj = nil
proc divide*(self, other: ptr Obj): ptr Obj = nil
proc subtract*(self, other: ptr Obj): ptr Obj = nil
# Returns 0 if self == other, a negative number if self < other
# and a positive number if self > other. This is a convenience
# method to implement all basic comparison operators in one
# method
proc compare*(self, other: ptr Obj): ptr Obj = nil
# Specific methods for each comparison
proc equalTo*(self, other: ptr Obj): ptr Obj = nil
proc greaterThan*(self, other: ptr Obj): ptr Obj = nil
proc lessThan*(self, other: ptr Obj): ptr Obj = nil
proc greaterOrEqual*(self, other: ptr Obj): ptr Obj = nil
proc lessOrEqual*(self, other: ptr Obj): ptr Obj = nil

48
src/backend/types/dispatch.nim

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# Copyright 2022 Mattia Giambirtone & All Contributors
#
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
#
# http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.
## Type dispatching module
import baseObject
import intObject
import floatObject
proc dispatch*(obj: ptr Obj, p: proc (self: ptr Obj): ptr Obj): ptr Obj =
## Dispatches a given one-argument procedure according to
## the provided object's runtime type and returns its result
case obj.kind:
of BaseObject:
result = p(obj)
of ObjectType.Float:
result = p(cast[ptr Float](obj))
of ObjectType.Integer:
result = p(cast[ptr Integer](obj))
else:
discard
proc dispatch*(a, b: ptr Obj, p: proc (self: ptr Obj, other: ptr Obj): ptr Obj): ptr Obj =
## Dispatches a given two-argument procedure according to
## the provided object's runtime type and returns its result
case a.kind:
of BaseObject:
result = p(a, b)
of ObjectType.Float:
# Further type casting for b is expected to occur later
# in the given procedure
result = p(cast[ptr Float](a), b)
of ObjectType.Integer:
result = p(cast[ptr Integer](a), b)
else:
discard

49
src/backend/types/floatObject.nim

@ -0,0 +1,49 @@
# Copyright 2022 Mattia Giambirtone & All Contributors
#
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
#
# http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.
## Implementation of integer types
import baseObject
import lenientops
type Float* = object of Obj
value: float64
proc newFloat*(value: float): ptr Float =
## Initializes a new JAPL
## float object from
## a machine native float
result = allocateObj(Float, ObjectType.Float)
result.value = value
proc toNativeFloat*(self: ptr Float): float =
## Returns the float's machine
## native underlying value
result = self.value
proc `$`*(self: ptr Float): string = $self.value
proc hash*(self: ptr Float): int64 =
## Implements hashing
## for the given float
if self.value - int(self.value) == self.value:
result = int(self.value)
else:
result = 2166136261 xor int(self.value) # TODO: Improve this
result *= 16777619

207
src/backend/types/hashMap.nim

@ -0,0 +1,207 @@
# Copyright 2022 Mattia Giambirtone & All Contributors
#
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
#
# http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.
import ../../memory/allocator
import ../../config
import baseObject
import iterable
type
Entry = object
## Low-level object to store key/value pairs.
## Using an extra value for marking the entry as
## a tombstone instead of something like detecting
## tombstones as entries with null keys but full values
## may seem wasteful. The thing is, though, that since
## we want to implement sets on top of this hashmap and
## the implementation of a set is *literally* a dictionary
## with empty values and keys as the elements, this would
## confuse our findEntry method and would force us to override
## it to account for a different behavior.
## Using a third field takes up more space, but saves us
## from the hassle of rewriting code
key: ptr Obj
value: ptr Obj
tombstone: bool
HashMap* = object of Iterable
## An associative array with O(1) lookup time,
## similar to nim's Table type, but using raw
## memory to be more compatible with JAPL's runtime
## memory management
entries: ptr UncheckedArray[ptr Entry]
# This attribute counts *only* non-deleted entries
actual_length: int
proc newHashMap*: ptr HashMap =
## Initializes a new, empty hashmap
result = allocateObj(HashMap, ObjectType.Dict)
result.actual_length = 0
result.entries = nil
result.capacity = 0
result.length = 0
proc freeHashMap*(self: ptr HashMap) =
## Frees the memory associated with the hashmap
discard freeArray(UncheckedArray[ptr Entry], self.entries, self.capacity)
self.length = 0
self.actual_length = 0
self.capacity = 0
self.entries = nil
proc findEntry(self: ptr UncheckedArray[ptr Entry], key: ptr Obj, capacity: int): ptr Entry =
## Low-level method used to find entries in the underlying
## array, returns a pointer to an entry
var capacity = uint64(capacity)
var idx = uint64(key.hash()) mod capacity
while true:
result = self[idx]
if system.`==`(result.key, nil):
# We found an empty bucket
break
elif result.tombstone:
# We found a previously deleted
# entry. In this case, we need
# to make sure the tombstone
# will get overwritten when the
# user wants to add a new value
# that would replace it, BUT also
# for it to not stop our linear
# probe sequence. Hence, if the
# key of the tombstone is the same
# as the one we're looking for,
# we break out of the loop, otherwise
# we keep searching
if result.key == key:
break
elif result.key == key:
# We were looking for a specific key and
# we found it, so we also bail out
break
# If none of these conditions match, we have a collision!
# This means we can just move on to the next slot in our probe
# sequence until we find an empty slot. The way our resizing
# mechanism works makes the empty slot invariant easy to
# maintain since we increase the underlying array's size
# before we are actually full
idx = (idx + 1) mod capacity
proc adjustCapacity(self: ptr HashMap) =
var newCapacity = growCapacity(self.capacity)
var entries = allocate(UncheckedArray[ptr Entry], Entry, newCapacity)
var oldEntry: ptr Entry
var newEntry: ptr Entry
self.length = 0
for x in countup(0, newCapacity - 1):
entries[x] = allocate(Entry, Entry, 1)
entries[x].tombstone = false
entries[x].key = nil
entries[x].value = nil
for x in countup(0, self.capacity - 1):
oldEntry = self.entries[x]
if not system.`==`(oldEntry.key, nil):
newEntry = entries.findEntry(oldEntry.key, newCapacity)
newEntry.key = oldEntry.key
newEntry.value = oldEntry.value
self.length += 1
discard freeArray(UncheckedArray[ptr Entry], self.entries, self.capacity)
self.entries = entries
self.capacity = newCapacity
proc setEntry(self: ptr HashMap, key: ptr Obj, value: ptr Obj): bool =
if float64(self.length + 1) >= float64(self.capacity) * MAP_LOAD_FACTOR:
self.adjustCapacity()
var entry = findEntry(self.entries, key, self.capacity)
result = system.`==`(entry.key, nil)
if result:
self.actual_length += 1
self.length += 1
entry.key = key
entry.value = value
entry.tombstone = false
proc `[]`*(self: ptr HashMap, key: ptr Obj): ptr Obj =
var entry = findEntry(self.entries, key, self.capacity)
if system.`==`(entry.key, nil) or entry.tombstone:
raise newException(KeyError, "Key not found: " & $key)
result = entry.value
proc `[]=`*(self: ptr HashMap, key: ptr Obj, value: ptr Obj) =
discard self.setEntry(key, value)
proc len*(self: ptr HashMap): int =
result = self.actual_length
proc del*(self: ptr HashMap, key: ptr Obj) =
if self.len() == 0:
raise newException(KeyError, "delete from empty hashmap")
var entry = findEntry(self.entries, key, self.capacity)
if not system.`==`(entry.key, nil):
self.actual_length -= 1
entry.tombstone = true
else:
raise newException(KeyError, "Key not found: " & $key)
proc contains*(self: ptr HashMap, key: ptr Obj): bool =
let entry = findEntry(self.entries, key, self.capacity)
if not system.`==`(entry.key, nil) and not entry.tombstone:
result = true
else:
result = false
iterator keys*(self: ptr HashMap): ptr Obj =
var entry: ptr Entry
for i in countup(0, self.capacity - 1):
entry = self.entries[i]
if not system.`==`(entry.key, nil) and not entry.tombstone:
yield entry.key
iterator values*(self: ptr HashMap): ptr Obj =
for key in self.keys():
yield self[key]
iterator pairs*(self: ptr HashMap): tuple[key: ptr Obj, val: ptr Obj] =
for key in self.keys():
yield (key: key, val: self[key])
iterator items*(self: ptr HashMap): ptr Obj =
for k in self.keys():
yield k
proc `$`*(self: ptr HashMap): string =
var i = 0
result &= "{"
for key, value in self.pairs():
result &= $key & ": " & $value
if i < self.len() - 1:
result &= ", "
i += 1
result &= "}"

40
src/backend/types/intObject.nim

@ -0,0 +1,40 @@
# Copyright 2022 Mattia Giambirtone & All Contributors
#
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
#
# http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.
## Implementation of integer types
import baseObject
type Integer* = object of Obj
value: int64
proc newInteger*(value: int64): ptr Integer =
## Initializes a new JAPL
## integer object from
## a machine native integer
result = allocateObj(Integer, ObjectType.Integer)
result.value = value
proc toNativeInteger*(self: ptr Integer): int64 =
## Returns the integer's machine
## native underlying value
result = self.value
proc `$`*(self: ptr Integer): string = $self.value
proc hash*(self: ptr Integer): int64 = self.value

45
src/backend/types/iterable.nim

@ -0,0 +1,45 @@
# Copyright 2022 Mattia Giambirtone & All Contributors
#
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
#
# http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.
# Implementation of iterable types and iterators in JAPL
import baseObject
type
Iterable* = object of Obj
## Defines the standard interface
## for iterable types in JAPL
length*: int
capacity*: int
Iterator* = object of Iterable
## This object drives iteration
## for every iterable type in JAPL except
## generators
iterable*: ptr Obj
iterCount*: int
proc getIter*(self: Iterable): ptr Iterator =
## Returns the iterator object of an
## iterable, which drives foreach
## loops
return nil
proc next*(self: Iterator): ptr Obj =
## Returns the next element from
## the iterator or nil if the
## iterator has been consumed
return nil

15
src/backend/types/stringObject.nim

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# Copyright 2022 Mattia Giambirtone & All Contributors
#
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
#
# http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.
# JAPL string implementations

20
src/backend/vm.nim

@ -0,0 +1,20 @@
# Copyright 2022 Mattia Giambirtone & All Contributors
#
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
#
# http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.
## The JAPL runtime environment
type
VM* = ref object
stack:

61
src/config.nim

@ -0,0 +1,61 @@
# Copyright 2022 Mattia Giambirtone & All Contributors
#
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
#
# http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.
import strformat
const BYTECODE_MARKER* = "JAPL_BYTECODE"
const MAP_LOAD_FACTOR* = 0.75 # Load factor for builtin hashmaps
when MAP_LOAD_FACTOR >= 1.0:
{.fatal: "Hashmap load factor must be < 1".}
const HEAP_GROW_FACTOR* = 2 # How much extra memory to allocate for dynamic arrays and garbage collection when resizing
when HEAP_GROW_FACTOR <= 1:
{.fatal: "Heap growth factor must be > 1".}
const MAX_STACK_FRAMES* = 800 # The maximum number of stack frames at any one time. Acts as a recursion limiter (1 frame = 1 call)
when MAX_STACK_FRAMES <= 0:
{.fatal: "The frame limit must be > 0".}
const JAPL_VERSION* = (major: 0, minor: 4, patch: 0)
const JAPL_RELEASE* = "alpha"
const JAPL_COMMIT_HASH* = "ba9c8b4e5664c0670eb8925d65b307e397d6ed82"
when len(JAPL_COMMIT_HASH) != 40:
{.fatal: "The git commit hash must be exactly 40 characters long".}
const JAPL_BRANCH* = "master"
when len(JAPL_BRANCH) >= 255:
{.fatal: "The git branch name's length must be less than or equal to 255 characters".}
const DEBUG_TRACE_VM* = false # Traces VM execution
const SKIP_STDLIB_INIT* = false # Skips stdlib initialization (can be imported manually)
const DEBUG_TRACE_GC* = false # Traces the garbage collector (TODO)
const DEBUG_TRACE_ALLOCATION* = false # Traces memory allocation/deallocation
const DEBUG_TRACE_COMPILER* = false # Traces the compiler
const JAPL_VERSION_STRING* = &"JAPL {JAPL_VERSION.major}.{JAPL_VERSION.minor}.{JAPL_VERSION.patch} {JAPL_RELEASE} ({JAPL_BRANCH}, {CompileDate}, {CompileTime}, {JAPL_COMMIT_HASH[0..8]}) [Nim {NimVersion}] on {hostOS} ({hostCPU})"
const HELP_MESSAGE* = """The JAPL programming language, Copyright (C) 2022 Mattia Giambirtone & All Contributors
This program is free software, see the license distributed with this program or check
http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0 for more info.
Basic usage
-----------
$ jpl Opens an interactive session (REPL)
$ jpl file.jpl Runs the given JAPL source file
Command-line options
--------------------
-h, --help Shows this help text and exits
-v, --version Prints the JAPL version number and exits
-s, --string Executes the passed string as if it was a file
-i, --interactive Enables interactive mode, which opens a REPL session after execution of a file or source string
-c, --nocache Disables dumping the result of bytecode compilation to files for caching
-d, --cache-delay Configures the bytecode cache invalidation threshold, in minutes (defaults to 60)
"""

1048
src/frontend/compiler.nim

File diff suppressed because it is too large

574
src/frontend/lexer.nim

<
@ -0,0 +1,574 @@
# Copyright 2022 Mattia Giambirtone & All Contributors
#
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
#
# http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.
## A simple and modular tokenizer implementation with arbitrary lookahead
import strutils
import parseutils
import strformat
import tables
import meta/token
import meta/errors
export token # Makes Token available when importing the lexer module
export errors
type SymbolTable = object
## A table of symbols used
## to lex a source file
keywords: TableRef[string, Token]
operators: TableRef[string, Token]
# Table of all single-character tokens
var tokens = to_table({
'(': LeftParen, ')': RightParen,
'{': LeftBrace, '}': RightBrace,
'.': Dot, ',': Comma, '-': Minus,
'+': Plus, '*': Asterisk,
'>': GreaterThan, '<': LessThan, '=': Equal,
'~': Tilde, '/': Slash, '%': Percentage,
'[': LeftBracket, ']': RightBracket,
':': Colon, '^': Caret, '&': Ampersand,
'|': Pipe, ';': Semicolon})
# Table of all double-character tokens
const double = to_table({"**": DoubleAsterisk,
">>": RightShift,
"<<": LeftShift,
"==": DoubleEqual,
"!=": NotEqual,
">=": GreaterOrEqual,
"<=": LessOrEqual,
"//": FloorDiv,
"+=": InplaceAdd,
"-=": InplaceSub,
"/=": InplaceDiv,
"*=": InplaceMul,
"^=": InplaceXor,
"&=": InplaceAnd,
"|=": InplaceOr,
"%=": InplaceMod,
})
# Table of all triple-character tokens
const triple = to_table({"//=": InplaceFloorDiv,
"**=": InplacePow,
">>=": InplaceRightShift,
"<<=": InplaceLeftShift
})
# Constant table storing all the reserved keywords (which are parsed as identifiers)
const keywords = to_table({
"fun": Fun, "raise": Raise,
"if": If, "else": Else,
"for": For, "while": While,
"var": Var, "nil": Nil,
"true": True, "false": False,
"return": Return, "break": Break,
"continue": Continue, "inf": Infinity,
"nan": NotANumber, "is": Is,
"lambda": Lambda, "class": Class,
"async": Async, "import": Import,
"isnot": IsNot, "from": From,
"const": Const, "not": LogicalNot,
"assert": Assert, "or": LogicalOr,
"and": LogicalAnd, "del": Del,
"async": Async, "await": Await,
"foreach": Foreach, "yield": Yield,
"private": Private, "public": Public,
"static": Static, "dynamic": Dynamic,
"as": As, "of": Of, "defer": Defer,
"except": Except, "finally": Finally,
"try": Try
})
type
Lexer* = ref object
## A lexer object
source: string
tokens: seq[Token]
line: int
start: int
current: int
file: string
lines: seq[tuple[start, stop: int]]
lastLine: int
# Simple public getters
proc getStart*(self: Lexer): int = self.start
proc getCurrent*(self: Lexer): int = self.current
proc getLine*(self: Lexer): int = self.line
proc getSource*(self: Lexer): string = self.source
proc getRelPos*(self: Lexer, line: int): tuple[start, stop: int] = (if line > 1: self.lines[line - 2] else: (start: 0, stop: self.current))
proc initLexer*(self: Lexer = nil): Lexer =
## Initializes the lexer or resets
## the state of an existing one
new(result)
if self != nil:
result = self
result.source = ""
result.tokens = @[]
result.line = 1
result.start = 0
result.current = 0
result.file = ""
result.lines = @[]
result.lastLine = 0
proc done(self: Lexer): bool =
## Returns true if we reached EOF
result = self.current >= self.source.len
proc incLine(self: Lexer) =
## Increments the lexer's line
## and updates internal line
## metadata
self.lines.add((start: self.lastLine, stop: self.current))
self.line += 1
self.lastLine = self.current
proc step(self: Lexer, n: int = 1): string =
## Steps n characters forward in the
## source file (default = 1). A null
## terminator is returned if the lexer
## is at EOF. The amount of skipped
## characters is returned
if self.done():
return "\0"
self.current = self.current + n
result = self.source[self.current..self.current + n]
proc peek(self: Lexer, distance: int = 0): string =
## Returns the character in the source file at
## the given distance, without consuming it.
## The character is converted to a string of
## length one for compatibility with the rest
## of the lexer.
## A null terminator is returned if the lexer
## is at EOF. The distance parameter may be
## negative to retrieve previously consumed
## tokens, while the default distance is 0
## (retrieves the next token to be consumed).
## If the given distance goes beyond EOF, a
## null terminator is returned
if self.done() or self.current + distance > self.source.high():
result = "\0"
else:
# hack to "convert" a char to a string
result = &"{self.source[self.current + distance]}"
proc peek(self: Lexer, distance: int = 0, length: int = 1): string =
## Behaves like self.peek(), but
## can peek more than one character,
## starting from the given distance.
## A string of exactly length characters
## is returned. If the length of the
## desired string goes beyond EOF,
## the resulting string is padded
## with null terminators
var i = distance
while i <= length:
result.add(self.peek(i))
inc(i)
proc error(self: Lexer, message: string) =
## Raises a lexing error with a formatted
## error message
raise newException(LexingError, &"A fatal error occurred while parsing '{self.file}', line {self.line} at '{self.peek()}' -> {message}")
proc check(self: Lexer, what: string, distance: int = 0): bool =
## Behaves like match, without consuming the
## token. False is returned if we're at EOF
## regardless of what the token to check is.
## The distance is passed directly to self.peek()
if self.done():
return false
return self.peek(distance) == what
proc check(self: Lexer, what: string): bool =
## Calls self.check() in a loop with
## each character from the given source
## string. Useful to check multi-character
## strings in one go
for i, chr in what:
# Why "i" you ask? Well, since check
# does not consume the tokens it checks
# against we need some way of keeping
# track where we are in the string the
# caller gave us, otherwise this will
# not behave as expected
if not self.check(&"{chr}", i):
return false
return true
proc check(self: Lexer, what: openarray[string]): bool =
## Calls self.check() in a loop with
## each character from the given seq of
## char and returns at the first match.
## Useful to check multiple tokens in a situation
## where only one of them may match at one time
for s in what:
if self.check(s):
return true
return false
proc match(self: Lexer, what: char): bool =
## Returns true if the next character matches
## the given character, and consumes it.
## Otherwise, false is returned
if self.done():
self.error("unexpected EOF")
return false
elif not self.check(what):
self.error(&"expecting '{what}', got '{self.peek()}' instead")
return false
self.current += 1
return true
proc match(self: Lexer, what: string): bool =
## Calls self.match() in a loop with
## each character from the given source
## string. Useful to match multi-character
## strings in one go
for chr in what:
if not self.match(chr):
return false
return true
proc createToken(self: Lexer, tokenType: TokenType) =
## Creates a token object and adds it to the token
## list
var tok: Token = new(Token)
tok.kind = tokenType
tok.lexeme = self.source[self.start..<self.current]
tok.line = self.line
tok.pos = (start: self.start, stop: self.current)
self.tokens.add(tok)
proc parseEscape(self: Lexer) =
# Boring escape sequence parsing. For more info check out
# https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Escape_sequences_in_C.
# As of now, \u and \U are not supported, but they'll
# likely be soon. Another notable limitation is that
# \xhhh and \nnn are limited to the size of a char
# (i.e. uint8, or 256 values)
case self.peek():
of 'a':
self.source[self.current] = cast[char](0x07)
of 'b':
self.source[self.current] = cast[char](0x7f)
of 'e':
self.source[self.current] = cast[char](0x1B)
of 'f':
self.source[self.current] = cast[char](0x0C)
of 'n':
when defined(windows):
# We natively convert LF to CRLF on Windows, and
# gotta thank Microsoft for the extra boilerplate!
self.source[self.current] = cast[char](0x0D)
self.source.insert(self.current + 1, 0X0A)
when defined(darwin):
# Thanks apple, lol
self.source[self.current] = cast[char](0x0A)
when defined(linux):
self.source[self.current] = cast[char](0X0D)
of 'r':
self.source[self.current] = cast[char](0x0D)
of 't':
self.source[self.current] = cast[char](0x09)
of 'v':
self.source[self.current] = cast[char](0x0B)
of '"':
self.source[self.current] = '"'
of '\'':
self.source[self.current] = '\''
of '\\':
self.source[self.current] = cast[char](0x5C)
of '0'..'9':
var code = ""
var value = 0
var i = self.current
while i < self.source.high() and (let c = self.source[
i].toLowerAscii(); c in '0'..'7') and len(code) < 3:
code &= self.source[i]
i += 1
assert parseOct(code, value) == code.len()
if value > uint8.high().int:
self.error("escape sequence value too large (> 255)")
self.source[self.current] = cast[char](value)
of 'u', 'U':
self.error("unicode escape sequences are not supported (yet)")
of 'x':
var code = ""
var value = 0
var i = self.current
while i < self.source.high() and (let c = self.source[
i].toLowerAscii(); c in 'a'..'f' or c in '0'..'9'):
code &= self.source[i]
i += 1
assert parseHex(code, value) == code.len()
if value > uint8.high().int:
self.error("escape sequence value too large (> 255)")
self.source[self.current] = cast[char](value)
else:
self.error(&"invalid escape sequence '\\{self.peek()}'")
proc parseString(self: Lexer, delimiter: char, mode: string = "single") =
## Parses string literals. They can be expressed using matching pairs
## of either single or double quotes. Most C-style escape sequences are
## supported, moreover, a specific prefix may be prepended
## to the string to instruct the lexer on how to parse it:
## - b -> declares a byte string, where each character is
## interpreted as an integer instead of a character
## - r -> declares a raw string literal, where escape sequences
## are not parsed and stay as-is
## - f -> declares a format string, where variables may be
## interpolated using curly braces like f"Hello, {name}!".
## Braces may be escaped using a pair of them, so to represent
## a literal "{" in an f-string, one would use {{ instead
## Multi-line strings can be declared using matching triplets of
## either single or double quotes. They can span across multiple
## lines and escape sequences in them are not parsed, like in raw
## strings, so a multi-line string prefixed with the "r" modifier
## is redundant, although multi-line byte/format strings are supported
while not self.check(delimiter) and not self.done():
if self.check('\n'):
if mode == "multi":
self.incLine()
else:
self.error("unexpected EOL while parsing string literal")
if mode in ["raw", "multi"]:
discard self.step()
if self.check('\\'):
# This madness here serves to get rid of the slash, since \x is mapped
# to a one-byte sequence but the string '\x' actually 2 bytes (or more,
# depending on the specific escape sequence)
self.source = self.source[0..<self.current] & self.source[
self.current + 1..^1]
self.parseEscape()
if mode == "format" and self.check('{'):
discard self.step()
if self.check('{'):
self.source = self.source[0..<self.current] & self.source[
self.current + 1..^1]
continue
while not self.check(['}', '"']):
discard self.step()
if self.check('"'):
self.error("unclosed '{' in format string")
elif mode == "format" and self.check('}'):
if not self.check('}', 1):
self.error("unmatched '}' in format string")
else:
self.source = self.source[0..<self.current] & self.source[
self.current + 1..^1]
discard self.step()
if mode == "multi":
if not self.match(delimiter.repeat(3)):
self.error("unexpected EOL while parsing multi-line string literal")
if self.done():
self.error("unexpected EOF while parsing string literal")
return
else:
discard self.step()
self.createToken(String)
proc parseBinary(self: Lexer) =
## Parses binary numbers
while self.peek().isDigit():
if not self.check(['0', '1']):
self.error(&"invalid digit '{self.peek()}' in binary literal")
discard self.step()
self.createToken(Binary)
# To make our life easier, we pad the binary number in here already
while (self.tokens[^1].lexeme.len() - 2) mod 8 != 0:
self.tokens[^1].lexeme = "0b" & "0" & self.tokens[^1].lexeme[2..^1]
proc parseOctal(self: Lexer) =
## Parses octal numbers
while self.peek().isDigit():
if self.peek() notin '0'..'7':
self.error(&"invalid digit '{self.peek()}' in octal literal")
discard self.step()
self.createToken(Octal)
proc parseHex(self: Lexer) =
## Parses hexadecimal numbers
while self.peek().isAlphaNumeric():
if not self.peek().isDigit() and self.peek().toLowerAscii() notin 'a'..'f':
self.error(&"invalid hexadecimal literal")
discard self.step()
self.createToken(Hex)
proc parseNumber(self: Lexer) =
## Parses numeric literals, which encompass
## integers and floats composed of arabic digits.
## Floats also support scientific notation
## (i.e. 3e14), while the fractional part
## must be separated from the decimal one
## using a dot (which acts as a "comma").
## Literals such as 32.5e3 are also supported.
## The "e" for the scientific notation of floats
## is case-insensitive. Binary number literals are
## expressed using the prefix 0b, hexadecimal
## numbers with the prefix 0x and octal numbers
## with the prefix 0o
case self.peek():
of 'b':
discard self.step()
self.parseBinary()
of 'x':
discard self.step()
self.parseHex()
of 'o':
discard self.step()
self.parseOctal()
else:
var kind: TokenType = Integer
while isDigit(self.peek()):
discard self.step()
if self.check(['e', 'E']):
kind = Float
discard self.step()
while self.peek().isDigit():
discard self.step()
elif self.check('.'):
# TODO: Is there a better way?
discard self.step()
if not isDigit(self.peek()):
self.error("invalid float number literal")
kind = Float
while isDigit(self.peek()):
discard self.step()
if self.check(['e', 'E']):
discard self.step()
while isDigit(self.peek()):
discard self.step()
self.createToken(kind)
proc parseIdentifier(self: Lexer) =
## Parses identifiers and keywords.
## Note that multi-character tokens
## such as UTF runes are not supported
while self.peek().isAlphaNumeric() or self.check('_'):
discard self.step()
var name: string = self.source[self.start..<self.current]
if name in keywords:
# It's a keyword
self.createToken(keywords[name])
else:
# Identifier!
self.createToken(Identifier)
proc next(self: Lexer) =
## Scans a single token. This method is
## called iteratively until the source
## file reaches EOF
if self.done():
return
var single = self.step()
if single in [' ', '\t', '\r', '\f',
'\e']: # We skip whitespaces, tabs and other useless characters
return
elif single == '\n':
self.incLine()
elif single in ['"', '\'']:
if self.check(single) and self.check(single, 1):
# Multiline strings start with 3 quotes
discard self.step(2)
self.parseString(single, "multi")
else:
self.parseString(single)
elif single.isDigit():
self.parseNumber()
elif single.isAlphaNumeric() and self.check(['"', '\'']):
# Like Python, we support bytes and raw literals
case single:
of 'r':
self.parseString(self.step(), "raw")
of 'b':
self.parseString(self.step(), "bytes")
of 'f':
self.parseString(self.step(), "format")
else:
self.error(&"unknown string prefix '{single}'")
elif single.isAlphaNumeric() or single == '_':
self.parseIdentifier()
else:
# Comments are a special case
if single == '#':